Tp-Note is a note-taking-tool and a template system -- freely available for Windows, MacOS and Linux -- that consistently synchronizes the note's meta-data with its filename. If you like to keep your notes next to your files and you care about expressive filenames, then Tp-Note might be the tool of your choice.
I haven't really tested Tp-Note but, from reading its extensive documentation, one gets the idea that it's a very powerful as well as very customizable software for its purpose.
Apparently, Tp-Note can be used without installation but that doesn't really make it portable since, according to the "man page", it saves its settings to '%APPDATA%\tpnote\config'.
A workaround is provided by using command line parameters "-c" or "--config=" that allows pointing to the program's folder...
IMHO, the real power of Tp-Note lies in using it as a shell extension in Windows, as is also rather well documented in Tp-Note documentation covering installing:
Referrencing Tp-Note Github (mirror) the latest release is currently v1.20.1 (see https://github.com/getreu/tp-note/releases; BTW, this is also where a more convenient ZIP package can be downloaded, instead of the MSI offered elsewhere...).